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Why dizziness and what to do about it

Why dizziness and what to do about it

Dizziness is the second most common neurological symptom after headache. WHO claims that up to 5% of relatively healthy adults experience persistent vertigo attacks. In some cases, this condition is more of a norm than a pathology. Therefore, do not rush to panic even if it comes to vomiting. Find a quiet place, wait out the uncomfortable sensations and read our article. In it, we will analyze the causes of dizziness and give recommendations on how to overcome this disorder.

Why you feel dizzy, and what types of vertigo are familiar to medicine

The feeling of unsteady ground, the rotation of the world when walking and the general instability of reality after getting up provokes a resynchronization of signals from the proprioceptive system, the vestibular and visual apparatus. With a sharp failure of the vestibular "controller", false signals violate the stable position of the body in space, and the visual system fixes the darkening and distortion of the picture of the world.

Varieties of vertigo depend on provocateurs that caused resynchronization or failure of the vestibular and visual apparatus. According to the generally accepted medical classification, there are the following types of vertigo:

  • psychogenic disorder - exacerbated against the background of extreme emotions or neuropsychiatric symptoms (hysteria, depersonalization);
  • cerebral vertigo - in this case, dizziness is provoked by injuries, pathologies and anomalies of the brain and spinal cord;
  • eye dizziness - this disorder occurs in healthy people who have experienced visual stimulation;

  • ear disorder - in this case, the provocateur is the pathology of the vestibular apparatus, damage or congestion of the Eustachian tube, pressure from the sulfur plug.

The provocateurs of these varieties of dizziness are various pathologies and disorders of the human body. Up to 80 causes of vertigo have been described in medicine. Moreover, every fifth reason is collected from several provocateurs.

The main causes of pathological vertigo

Why does a system failure occur, after which the head begins to spin? The trigger for this condition can be a congenital or acquired pathology. Doctors distinguish the following pathological causes of an attack of dizziness:

  • Diseases of the inner ear that disrupt the transmission of an auditory or vestibular signal to the brain, and quite often the cause of the disorder can also be a sulfuric plug, from which the channel is laid.

  • Severe osteochondrosis or hernia of the collar of the spine - these pathologies interfere with the normal blood supply to the brain, causing neurological symptoms.
  • Strokes, thrombosis, ischemia and other circulatory disorders - they provoke hypoxia (oxygen deficiency in brain tissues), against which neurological disorders often occur.
  • Pressure surges - they can provoke disturbances in the work of the vestibular and visual apparatus.

  • Malignant and benign tumors of the eyes and brain - they disrupt the normal functioning of the nervous system.
  • Panic attacks, hysteria, depersonalization of the personality - neuropsychiatric disorders do not go unnoticed for the vestibular apparatus.
  • Climax - against the background of a hormonal storm, vertigo attacks of varying intensity are possible;
  • Drugs with a narcotic or sedative effect - in this case, dizziness is a side effect.

In addition to pathologies, there are also physiological causes of vertigo caused by a short-term failure of the body. These conditions differ from pathological problems in the absence of pressure problems in a patient suffering from circling of the head.

Physiological causes of dizziness at normal pressure

Why dizziness with a health disorder is understandable even to a person far from medicine. But vertigo occurs not only in patients, but also in relatively healthy people, in whose body no serious abnormalities or anomalies are found.

Under normal pressure, an absolutely healthy person may face extreme situations, as a result of which he will survive a mild or severe attack of vertigo.

These situations can include:

  • a sharp movement, for example, getting up from a chair, jumping into a pool, turning on an attraction - all this leads to a loss of coordination (a person's eyes do not keep up with a sharp change in the environment);
  • fear or any other emotion expressed too strongly - in this case, the loss of coordination is provoked by a hormonal shake-up and an overload of the cardiovascular system;

  • an excess of oxygen in the blood against the background of a deficiency of carbon dioxide - hyperventilation ends in a loss of coordination in 9 out of 10 cases, which any novice diver is warned about;
  • anemia due to improper diet - iron deficiency leads to severe hypoxia, black or white midges in the eyes;
  • sulfur plug, from which lays the channel associated with the inner ear;
  • vertigo of pregnancy - in the third trimester, the head is spinning especially strongly due to the redistribution of blood flow from the brain to the uterus.

In this case, it is important to remember that vertigo is not only a consequence of some disease, but also a harmless symptom of a physiological failure. Moreover, both pathological and physiological dizziness causes exactly the same symptoms, therefore, with constant attacks of vertigo, the affected person should visit a therapist.

Symptoms of physiological and pathological dizziness

The list of symptoms common to most pathologies and physiological abnormalities can include:

  • a feeling of constant rotation of the surrounding world around a person who has suffered from vertigo, and many at this time are constantly sick;
  • bouts of vomiting - not every victim is slightly sick, some people experience more vivid discomfort;
  • strong tinnitus, and it can sound both constantly and from time to time, and for some, ears are blocked during an attack;

  • gait with the head carried forward - it is easier to find a balance point and get rid of vomiting if nausea exceeds a critical threshold;
  • tachycardia - if it develops without nausea, then you have problems with the heart or blood vessels, but if you start to feel nauseous - get ready for an attack of dizziness;
  • cold sweat all over the body - the body signals a failure, including in the thermoregulation system;
  • weakness after standing up or sudden movement - often vertigo begins with this symptom;
  • unexpected drowsiness - it rolls at the end of the attack and signals the exit to the normal mode of functioning of the vestibular apparatus.

Drowsiness, sweating, loud noise - these symptoms can be tolerated for a very long time. Nausea is unpleasant, but not fatal. Therefore, people prefer to ignore even constantly recurring attacks. And this is a fundamentally wrong tactic, because serious reasons can be behind vertigo.

What are the symptoms you need to make an appointment with?

  • Your head is spinning at the peak of the pain, plus you start to feel nauseous, and you also feel a sudden weakness. This is how strokes and other pathologies associated with blood vessels and the heart begin.
  • An attack occurs suddenly and lasts for more than half an hour in a row - this is a very dangerous situation even if you do not feel sick or feel pain.
  • Attack on the background of hypertension and diabetes. Moreover, it does not matter how long this happens and what the patient feels. Dizziness and weakness in this condition is a very bad symptom.

  • An attack on the background of profuse vomiting. If the victim is sick constantly and profusely, then this is very similar to alcohol, drug or food poisoning.
  • The attack coincided with a sharp jump in body temperature - immediately call an ambulance.
  • Dizziness ended in loss of consciousness - this is a very dangerous situation that requires an immediate call for an ambulance.

  • Against the background of sudden dizziness, pain appeared in the left arm, with partial numbness of the fingers - this is how heart attacks begin.

If you have any of these symptoms, you will be admitted to the hospital out of turn. After the initial examination by a specialized specialist, you will be prescribed comprehensive diagnostic procedures.

How to find the cause of vertigo - hardware and laboratory diagnostics

If it gets dark in your eyes when you start to get up from a chair, if even a sharp tilt of your head causes fainting and a desire to stay in bed, if something incomprehensible starts to happen in your head with any change of scenery, you should contact your therapist. He will conduct an initial examination, as a result of which you will be sent to a neurologist, otolaryngologist or endocrinologist.

The neurologist begins the appointment with tests for the stability of the vestibular apparatus. The patient will have to get up and sit on a chair, touch the tip of the nose and do other manipulations. After the initial assessment of the condition, the neurologist will refer the patient to posturography - testing, with the help of which it is possible to determine with high accuracy what is happening with the patient's vestibular, visual and muscular apparatus.

On the same day, the patient will be offered to undergo an MRI of the brain and an examination of the vessels. If the cause of permanent vertigo is not associated with abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, brain and spinal cord, the patient will be

 transferred to an ENT doctor. He will perform an examination of the inner ear and auditory nerve. Simultaneously with these studies, otolaryngologists do audiometry and acoustic impedancemetry. You will have to spend another day for examinations by an ENT doctor.

As additional hardware examination methods, the patient can be offered CT, ultrasound, EEG and ultrasound. They are made on the recommendation of an otolaryngologist or neurologist. Do not refuse these examinations - they will help clarify the diagnosis and build the right treatment regimen.

Vertigo Therapy—Main Treatments for Vertigo

The victory over physiological vertigo is the result of the joint efforts of the doctor and the patient. Therefore, you should not just lie in bed, suffer and get sick - you will have to get up and pull yourself together. If you want to get rid of this ailment, start doing at least morning

 exercises, even if your eyes are getting dark and you feel irresistible drowsiness. Light physical exercises (bending and stretching) will return the normal blood supply to the brain and relieve the patient of abnormal drowsiness in a few days.

If it gets dark in the eyes even if you continue to lie in bed, leave exercise to healthier people. You will have to go to the hospital and get sick like an adult, with pills and injections.

Conservative treatment of a pathological disorder involves taking the following remedies for dizziness :

  • nootropic drugs and neuroprotectors;
  • sedatives;
  • antihistamines ;
  • antiemetic drugs ;
  • circulatory stimulants.

With mild pathology, it is not necessary to go to the hospital - you can drink pills at home. But if you begin to get seriously ill, with fainting at every bend, you will be offered surgery or a course of intensive drug therapy. In the surgical department, you will be offered surgical treatment.

Prevention of vertigo

If you don't want to go to the hospital, stick to the rules of a healthy lifestyle. Give up smoking and alcohol. Limit your salt intake. Get used to frequent walks in the fresh air. Go in for sports - swimming, cycling, hiking. Don't sit in a chair all day - get up and stretch at least once an hour. Buy an orthopedic mattress and pillow, and also allocate at least 7-8 hours a day for sleep.